SECI model

explicit knowledge.png

I learned SECI model, which is abbreviation of Socialization, Externalization, Combination and Internalization, by reading a book yesterday. It was suggested by business management researchers Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi in their book “The Knowledge Creating Company” published in 1996.


Anyone has a specific knowledge, which are acquired through individual experience. They include skill or mental model, and they are called as tacit knowledge. We share the knowledge with others. This process is called as socialization. However, it’s difficult to share the experience.


The next process is to express explicit concept from the tacit knowledge. It is called as externalization. Metaphor, analogy hypothesis are used as a tool.


It is called as a combination process to combine the explicit knowledges due to create a knowledge system.


The last process is to internalize the explicit knowledge into the individual tacit knowledge.


Japanese are good at using the tacit knowledge. It was a reason that Japanese companies had had advantage until 1990s. After the globalization in 2000, Japanese companies haven’t kept the advantage, because of lack of the explicit knowledge.


Even now, many Japanese companies depend on the tacit knowledge. They can’t create the system by using the explicit knowledge. We are required to create innovation, however, if we can’t use the explicit knowledge, we could not follow the era.


Author: mickflyaway

I'm Mick. I write bolgs focusing on business related subjects.

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